[47] The ministry assigns ulama to registered mosques, which critics complain inevitably involves favoritism and political connections. Islam has been recognized as the state religion since 1980. The Islamization process that converting Muslims be a dominant religion in Egypt was during the 10th and 14th century. [15], An estimated 5-6 million Egyptians are Salafis. During the years of 639-868, they have sent a military expedition, which previously leads by Amr ibn al-As (the military governor of Palestine) to conquer and made Egypt as part of their dominion with a … In the 1940s and early 1950s, the Muslim Brotherhood had appealed primarily to urban civil servants and white and blue-collar workers. Islam was first introduced into Africa by the Arab army that invaded Egypt under the command of Amr b. al-Aṣ in A.D. 640. Under the Mohamed Morsi government, critics alleged the Muslim Brotherhood put "its allies in high positions". This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 05:15. Numerous sectarian conflicts among Fatimid Ismailis after 1050 may have been a factor in Egyptian Muslim acceptance of Saladin's (Salah ad Din ibn Ayyub) reestablishment of Sunni Islam as the state religion in 1171. Islam is the dominant religion in Egypt with around an estimated 90% of the population. The Umayyad Caliphs 661-750 AD [45] Besides Kosovo, Egypt has had the largest positive net change of Muslims identifying as non-denominational Muslims. Most upper- and upper-middle-class Muslims believed either that religious expression was a private matter for each individual or that Islam should play a more dominant role in public life. Many Muslims say that Egypt's governments have been secularist and even anti-religious since the early 1920s. The majority of these individuals follow Sunni Islam and a minority is made up of Mu’tazila, Shia Twelvers, and followers of Ismailism. Over and above the many mosques, there are also many other fascinating Islamic sites in Egypt which attract millions of visitors each year.. And after some battle the Pelusium fell to the Muslims Arabs, and the Muslims continued marched to Belbeis by desert roads and besieged it. Islamic tradition rejected the idea of non-Muslims dominating Muslim society. Outside of the state-mosques are more than 40,000 independent mosques throughout Egypt.[11]. However, since the Government does not consider the practice of Christianity or Judaism to conflict with Shari'a, for the most part members of the non-Muslim minority worship without legal harassment and may maintain links with coreligionists in other countries. The army continued their journey until in 639 reached the Pelesium, an Eastern Roman garrison city and at that time consider as Egypt’s eastern gate. They also tell religious stories at village festivals and commemorations marking an individual's rites of passage. [11], A primarily male spiritual manifestation of Islam is Sufism, an Islamic mystical tradition. [16] Participation at the festivals (moulids) the Sufi orders organize, is perhaps twice that (and includes women and children). The approval process for church construction continued to be time-consuming and insufficiently responsive to the wishes of the Christian community. It was followed by so many scholars that emerge from the Egypt university of Islam called Al-Azhar. It is impossible to list all the Islamic groups that emerged in the late 1970s because many of them had diffuse structures and some of the more militant groups were underground. On August 22, in Zeneiqa village in Upper Egypt, police closed a church following protests by local Muslims against legalization of the church. [52], The social origins of Islamists changed after the 1952 Revolution. In June 2013 a mob of several hundred, including Muslim brotherhood members, attacked a house in the village of Abu Musallim near Cairo, dragging four Shia worshipers through the street before lynching them. During the Mubarak era most Salafis considered participation in politics to be "religiously forbidden", however since then Salafis have shown themselves to be not only tolerant of political participation but very adept. Know more about the Islamic Period in Egypt through one of our Egypt Tour Packages! Egypt's contemporary Sufis tend to be young, college-educated men in professional careers. In 1961, Gamal Abdel Nasser made Al Azhar part of the Ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments. Under Islamic law, non-Muslim males must convert to Islam to marry Muslim women. Their lack of identifying with a particular sect was noteworthy. Egypt is also the home to Al Azhar University, one of the oldest and most respected institutions of Islamic education in the entire world. Most Ulama, including those of Al-Azhar University, are employees of the Egyptian state who "recognize the regime’s primacy, support its stability, and legitimize its policies". The city of Alexandria was heavily fortified and was not easy to conquest. [7] This put an end to the political independence of the Ulama. According to the Constitution, Islam is the official state religion, and Shari'a is the primary source of legislation; religious practices that conflict with the official interpretation of Shari'a are prohibited. A sole male heir inherits all his parents' property. Islamists believed that the established social and political order had tainted the ulama, who had come to represent stumbling blocks to the new Islamic order. Only Cyrus of Alexandria who wanted to surrender and pay the Jizya. Sufi Islam is a sore point with Salafi Muslims. Even there was a resistance to reclaim Alexandria, but Amr ibn Al-As still managed to maintain the city under the muslims teritory. Egypt, Cairo, Panorama of Medieval Islamic Cairo.jpg 3,072 × 2,048; 3.74 MB EgyptIslam.png 359 × 358; 28 KB Flickr - dlisbona - Closed for prayer.jpg 800 × 600; 79 KB Several Islamic political groups started soon after World War I ended. [11] The young "sheikhs" deliver their sermons over the Internet, on private satellite channels and in sports clubs, away from the control of Al-Azhar and the state. We know that in ancient time, Egypt has been renowned from their ancient history and historical item such as pyramids of Giza and Sphynx. [48], Critics have complained that the actions of Awqaf reflect the government that controls them. The Constitution provides for freedom of belief and the practice of religion; however, the Government places restrictions on this right. Fortunately for Egypt, the natural conclusion of Qutb’s writings, the ideas of Takfir (declaring other Muslims apostates) and violence, failed to resonate with most Brothers. Although we cannot ascertain what the precise beliefs of the invading Arabs were it should be maintained that Islam was the " raison d'etre " [1] of their military organization. It also has direct access to the sea. Sufi Muslim moulids not only venerate the prophet Muhammad and his descendants (such as Hussein, the second son of the fourth Caliph Ali whose moulid in Cairo can draws crowds of more than a million people), but founders of Sufi orders, down to dozens of lesser-known sheikhs celebrated mostly in remote rural communities. A major supermarket chain in Egypt has taken French goods off its shelves in response to anti-Islam comments made recently by French President Emmanuel Macron, possibly setting … The conversion came as a normal result of the Arabs' virtues seen by Egyptians as the touch of Islam on them. As estimated that Islam is the dominant religion that has been practiced by 90% of the population. This analysis answers the important question: why were you born in Islam? Muslim families are subject to the Personal Status Law, which draws on Shari'a (Islamic law). A sole female heir receives half her parents' estate; the balance goes to designated male relatives. Shia Islam has a long pedigree in Egypt. In the practice of family law, the State recognizes only the three "heavenly religions": Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. It stood in the Khan el-Khalili area on Bin El-Qasryn street. Used almost exclusively against criticisms of Islam, the law is rarely invoked … Al Azhar Roughly five percent of Egyptian Muslims who were raised in a different affiliation began identifying as non-denominational Muslims as adults. The Muslim conquest of Egypt by the Arabs took place between 639 and 646 AD and was overseen by the Rashidun Caliphate. It ended the centuries long period of Roman/Byzantine reign (beginning in … As a result of these restrictions, some communities use private buildings and apartments for religious services. This course looks at the political and intellectual history of ‘political Islam’ in Egypt since the early 1870s. Egypt flourished and the Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. [51] The government accused the Brotherhood of complicity in an alleged 1954 plot to assassinate the president and imprisoned many of the group's leaders. Islamic Sites in Egypt. Women specially trained by their mothers or other women in zar lore organize the ceremonies. Used almost exclusively against criticisms of Islam, the law is rarely invoked … The Ottoman decree also requires the President to approve permits for the repair of church facilities. Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, Establishment Ulama and Radical Islam in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Jordan, "The Sufis' Choice: Egypt's Political Wild Card", What is Salafism and should we be worried?| First Post, Sufis to form popular committees to protect tombs, "Speakout: Muslims must both denounce, renounce their violent hadiths", Endangered Salman: From London to Cairo, free speech is under assault, "Pilgrimage to Karbala Sunni and Shia: The Worlds of Islam", "Egypt's Shiite Minority: Between the Egyptian Hammer and the Iranian Anvil", "Egypt: Attack On Shia Comes At Dangerous Time", "Egypt mob attack kills four Shia Muslims near Cairo", "Egypt: Lynching of Shia Follows Months of Hate Speech", "Rights group demands release of Ahmadiyya detainees", "Egypt Ahmadis detained under emergency law: rights group", Muslim Village: "Egypt bans Salafi books from mosques" by ABU HUDHAYFAH, "How many Christians are there in Egypt? In 1985 the People's Assembly voted to initiate a procedure for the gradual application of the Shari'a, beginning with an indefinite education period to prepare the population for the legal changes; the next step would be to amend all existing laws to exclude any provisions that conflict with the Shari'a. During the years of 639-868, they have sent a military expedition, which previously leads by Amr ibn al-As (the military governor of Palestine) to conquer and made Egypt as part of their dominion with a force of 4.000 troops. In January 2000, the Parliament passed a new Personal Status Law that made it easier for a Muslim woman to obtain a divorce without her husband's consent, provided that she is willing to forgo alimony and the return of her dowry. It was the first place in Egypt where the Byzantines show some resistance towards the Arab conquerors. Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque. Indeed, they viewed atheistic communism, Jewish Zionism, and Western "Crusader-minded" Christianity as their main enemies, which were responsible for the decadence that led to foreign domination and defeat by Zionists. • After 647 C.E., all of Egypt was under Islamic rule. Periodically, tensions occur between Muslims and Copts in Egypt, yet the authorities usually indicate that such incidents are isolated and rare. Muslim female heirs receive half the amount of a male heir's inheritance, while Christian widows of Muslims have no inheritance rights. They also replacing their native Coptic and Greek languages with Arabic as their sole vernacular and became the national language by law. The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, Arabic: الجهاد الإسلامي المصري ‎), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist group active since the late 1970s. In addition Interior Ministry regulations issued in 1934 specify a set of 10 conditions that the Government must consider prior to issuance of a presidential decree permitting construction of a church. (2013; p.302), 'Citizen Ahmad among the Believers: Salvation Contextualized in Indonesia and Egypt' in Khalil, M. H. Revelations from God in the Qur'an form the basis of Monotheism merged with a belief in angels, jinn and afarit (spirits). Early Islamic Period A 4,000 army were sent into Egypt by the muslims Khalifa Omar under the commander Amr Ibn Al-Aas in 639, another 5,000 army joined in 640 and conquered the Byzantine army at Heliopolis battle.then Amr continued to Alexandria then, the Byzantine army surrendered to him by a treaty signed in Nov.941. Male Muslim heirs face strong social pressure to provide for all family members who require assistance; however, this assistance is not always provided. [4] During the 19th and 20th centuries, successive governments made extensive efforts to limit the role of the ulama in public life and to bring religious institutions under closer state control. [6], Estimates of the number of Sufis in Egypt include at least a third of the adult male Muslim population in Egypt, being members of a Sufi order; fifteen million of the country's roughly 80 million citizens "claim" Sufism "as a practice",[13] still others say that while 15 million are registered as Sufis, "the true figure is likely to be higher". In the late 10th century, the Shia Ismaili caliphate of the Fatimids made Egypt their centre and Cairo their capital. Egypt’s “blasphemy” law against insulting religion has come under fire for violating the country’s constitutional guarantees of freedom of expression and religious freedom. Approximately 94.9% of the population of Egypt is Muslim. [9] In time,the school became responsible for assigning imams to all major mosques, and all these imams were required to be graduates of the school. The Islamists created their own alternative network of social and economic institutions through which members could work, study, and receive medical treatment in an Islamic environment. Egypt rejects linking terrorism with Islam during OIC meeting. Nov 11, 2020 CAIRO — Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities signed an agreement Nov. 9 with the Saudi Aramco company, to hold the first Egyptian artifacts exhibition in Saudi Arabia. The call to Islam resounded in Egypt with the arrival of the Arab Muslims into the Christian country in 640 A.D.. Mahmoud Zakzouk, Minister of Awqaf from 1995 to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, was appointed by Mubarak and dismissed at his overthrow. They remained, nonetheless, comparatively moderate; they were largely loyal to the government and condemned the violence of radical Islamist groups. [18] The moulids are a major manifestation of Sufi Islam in Egypt, and are held in honor of holy men and women (In Egypt the term Moulid is not reserved for Muslim festivals and may be in honor of Christian, and until recently Jewish holy men). Overseeing them is the Supreme Council for Sufi Orders and the president of Egypt is directly in charge of Sufi affairs. CAIRO – 29 November 2020: At a meeting for the Council of Foreign Ministers of Member States of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) under the title "United Against Terrorism for Peace and Development”, Egypt reiterates its refusal to link terrorist acts with Islam, according to a statement from the Egyptian Foreign Ministry on Saturday. The Brotherhood, however, soon came into conflict with Gamal Abdel Nasser. CAIRO, Egypt (Morning Star News) – A young Christian teacher in northeastern Egypt is facing charges of insulting Islam after he posted comments on Facebook, according to … You may want to read about how to dress up for men according to Islam. [6] This concept includes the belief that everything that happens in life is the will of God and the belief that trying to avoid misfortune is useless and invites worse affliction. A summary is provided on Egyptian revolts against the oppressive rule of Islamic Arab imperialism. In this city there are 4.000 palaces. The Islamization of Egypt occurred as a result of the Muslim conquest of Roman Egypt by the Arabs led by the prominent Muslim general Amr ibn al-Aas, the military governor of the Holy Land.The masses of locals in Egypt and the Middle East underwent a large scale gradual conversion from Christianity to Islam, accompanied by heavy taxes for those who refused to convert. As part of their Sunni creed, the most radical activists adopted jihad and committed themselves to battling unbelievers and impious Muslims. A mob of Muslim villagers attacked the homes and shops of Coptic Christians in Egypt’s Minya governorate over rumors that a Christian man had posted a comment denigrating Islam on Facebook, according to reports. At least one elderly woman was hospitalized for burns suffered in … The Brotherhood had contacts with the Free Officers before the 1952 Revolution and supported most of their initial policies. [17], The devotions of many Sufi orders center on various forms of the dhikr, a ceremony at which music, body movements, and chants induce a state of ecstatic trance in the disciples. Egypt, Cairo, Panorama of Medieval Islamic Cairo.jpg 3,072 × 2,048; 3.74 MB EgyptIslam.png 359 × 358; 28 KB Flickr - dlisbona - Closed for prayer.jpg 800 × 600; 79 KB Youssef Hany of Ismailia, a city on the Suez Canal 78 miles northeast of Cairo, posted the comments earlier this month in reply to a Muslim who had expressed her opposition to criticisms of Islam … [8] Awqaf, traditionally independent endowments for mosques and Islamic schools, became a ministry of the government. Although the Fatimids endowed numerous mosques, shrines, and theological schools, they did not firmly establish their faith (known today as Ismaili Shia Islam) in Egypt. In Egypt, Muslims and Christians share a common history, national identity, ethnicity, race, culture, and language. Most activists were university students or recent graduates; they included rural-urban migrants and urban middle-class youth whose fathers were middle-level government employees or professionals. The first popularly elected president lost power after twelve months in office due to lack of patience among Muslims. After the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, the government assumed responsibility for appointing officials to mosques and religious schools. Since there has been no religious census, the actual percentage of Muslims is not known: the percentage of Christians are estimated to be between 10 and 15%. Moves to reform the legal code received support from many Muslims who wanted to purify society and reject Western legal codes forced on Egypt in the 19th and 20th centuries. The victory in Heliopolis has spread far to Fayoum. In 1979 Sadat sought to diminish the influence of the associations through a law that transferred most of the authority of the student unions to professors and administrators. At times this trickle swelled to a steady or even massive flow of new converts. [20] The Salafi movement benefited from government support the 1990s when the government hoped to "combat and undermine" the violence of the Jihadi Salafi al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya with the preaching of the apolitical Salafis. In Egypt there are 74 Sufi orders (tarikas), each headed by its own sheikh. (Estimates of their number range from 800,000[32] to "at most" three million. He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, just as the appointment of any other state official. [52], Islamists rejected Marxism and Western capitalism. Muslims gained control over Egypt due to a variety of factors, including internal Byzantine politics, religious zeal and the difficulty of maintaining a large empire. [16], Sufism exists in a number of forms, most of which represent an original tarika ("path") developed by an inspired founder, or sheikh. Term of Use | Privacy Policy | Adchoices | Disclaimer, Brief History of Islam In Egypt Which Will Make You Amazed, how to dress up for men according to Islam. The caliph in Madinah Umar watches the development of the conquer in Egypt and later adding fresh forces at Madinah as a reinforcements for the troops lead by Amr. They are also full of provision and food supply. In cases of family law disputes involving a marriage between a Christian woman and a Muslim man, the courts apply the Personal Status Law. Fatimids ruled Egypt for 200 years (969 -1171) and shaped its identity. Over and above the many mosques, there are also many other fascinating Islamic sites in Egypt which attract millions of visitors each year.. Retrieved 4 September 2013. poll by the "National Center for SOcial and Criminal Research" quoted in Robin, Wright, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Learn how and when to remove this template message, American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ), Lawrence, Bruce B. The Awqaf Ministry command the mosques be locked between prayer times and took control of donation boxes. The Fatimid palace in Cairo had two parts. Egypt's largely uneducated urban and rural lower classes are intensely devoted to Islam, but they usually lack a thorough knowledge of the religion. 150), Origen the Great (b. [47] This effectively banned an estimated 53,000 imams from preaching in mosques,[47] although it is not clear if this edict can be enforced. Before Islam invaded it, Egypt was home to some of Christendom’s earliest theological giants and church fathers, including Clement of Alexandria (b. The Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ, Arabic: الجهاد الإسلامي المصري ‎), formerly called simply Islamic Jihad (الجهاد الإسلامي and "Liberation Army for Holy Sites"), originally referred to as al-Jihad, and then the Jihad Group, or the Jihad Organization, is an Egyptian Islamist group active since the late 1970s. To maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stances. Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, is quite often called the “City of 1000 Minarets” due to it numerous mosques. Islamic religious revival movements, whose appeal cut across class lines, were present in most cities and in many villages. About thousands of Byzantine army were killed and taken captive. The ulama also supported moves to reform the country's legal code to conform to Islamic teaching. The historical methods of islamization are discussed. In Egypt, The Muslim Brotherhood participated in social activism and constantly criticized westernization as ways of alleviating suffering among their citizens. [50], Islamic political activism has a lengthy history in Egypt. Egypt are bordered by Gaza strip and Israel in northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea of the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. I’m certain that most Egyptians feel the same way. On university campuses, for example, Sadat initially viewed the rise of Islamic associations (Gama'at Islamiya) as a counterbalance to leftist influence among students. Even village religious leaders usually have only a rudimentary knowledge of Islam. The more militant faction was committed to a policy of political opposition to the government. But following his dead, the Constantinople army were dispersed and the reinforcement stop. But by that time, the Brotherhood was divided into at least three factions. Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, is quite often called the “City of 1000 Minarets” due to it numerous mosques. In 654 an invasion fleet sent by Constans IIwas repelled. [52], The Muslim Brotherhood's reemergence as a political force coincided with the proliferation of Islamic groups. 9 August 2012. [7] In 2015, the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments initiated a campaign to remove any books authored by Salafi scholars from all mosques in Egypt. An Independent Voice for Egypt’s al-Azhar? Popular religion include a variety of orthodox practices, such as veneration of saints, recourse to charms and amulets, and belief in the influence of evil spirits. In the 1970s, Anwar Sadat amnestied the leaders and permitted them to resume some of their activities. During the 1970s and 1980s, Islamists perpetrated a number of violent acts, including the assassination of Anwar Sadat in October 1981. In addition, Islamists condemned the orthodox as "pulpit parrots" committed to a formalist practice of Islam but not to its spirit. Although conversion to Islam throughout the history of Egypt was slow in coming a steady trickle of Copts converting to Islam was inevitable. Al-Azhar Mosque, founded in AD 970 by the Fatimids as the first Islamic university in Egypt and the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria established in the middle of the 1st century by Saint Mark.. Islamic beliefs and practices shape all levels of Egyptian society and government. Although al-Azhar is not monolithic, its identity has been strongly associated with Sufism. 400 places of entertainment, and untold wealth.”. Numbers vary widely. In deference to their increasing influence, the Ministry of Justice in 1977 published a draft law making apostasy by a Muslim a capital offense and proposing traditional Islamic punishments for crimes, such as stoning for adultery and amputation of a hand for theft. The dominant moderate group advocated cooperation with the regime. [citation needed] Islam has been recognized as the state religion since 1980. The culture and all aspects of their lives are influenced by Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Turkish Ottoman, and Nubian. An 1856 Ottoman decree still in force requires non-Muslims to obtain a presidential decree to build a place of worship. [note 1]. The masses of locals in Egypt and the Middle East underwent a large scale gradual conversion from Christianity to Islam, accompanied by heavy taxes for those who refused to convert. We feel a great responsibility to be the ancestors of such magnificent civilisation. Their arrival in Egypt sparked off the process of islamization in Egypt. According to a report issued by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Egypt’s Islamic religious establishment is strongly Sufi in character. It is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia. The current Shaykh al-Azhar (rector of the school), Ahmed el-Tayeb, is a hereditary Sufi shaykh from Upper Egypt who has recently expressed his support for the formation of a world Sufi league; the current Grand Mufti of Egypt and senior al-Azhar scholar Ali Gomaa is also a highly respected Sufi master. CAIRO, Egypt, November 23, 2020 ( Morning Star News) – A young Christian teacher in northeastern Egypt is facing charges of insulting Islam after he posted comments on Facebook, according to local reports. The largest moulid in Egypt takes place in Tanta, which draws an even larger number of pilgrims than hajj in Mecca. A summary is provided on Egyptian revolts against the oppressive rule of Islamic Arab imperialism. Aretion the famous of Roman general tried to negotiate with Amr ibn Al-As. [46], The Ministry of Awqaf or Religious Endowments, oversees mosques in Egypt. Islamic beliefs and practices shape all levels of Egyptian society and government. Egypt is also the home to Al Azhar University, one of the oldest and most respected institutions of Islamic education in the entire world. [52] As of 2009, the Grand Mufti also has another title, Dar al-Iftaa, a part of the Ministry of Justice. The practical impact of the decree has been to facilitate significantly church repairs; however, Christians report that local permits still are subject to security authorities' approval. On, the Muslim Brotherhood 's reemergence as a religious heresy the population of Egypt is directly in of... It had its roots in Egypt, the lower-middle class, and within 200 years Coptic... State of affairs discredited Muslim rulers who permitted it to persist in Heliopolis has spread far to.. Converting Muslims be a part of populations are practicing Christians and Jews were protected but... Attracted followers from a broad spectrum of social classes early 1970s, there are a significant amount of a heir! That proposed a constitutional amendment to make the Shari ' a `` the source. Christian and Jewish families are subject to Jewish law. Zār, a primarily male spiritual of... Puppets of the Muslim Brotherhood acquired a reputation as a result of the Muslims!, Persian, and language area on Bin El-Qasryn street the rank-and- members... Protected status of dhimmis months in office due to it numerous mosques their religion in Egypt is home to University... Call it want to read about how to dress up for men according a... Jihad and committed themselves to battling unbelievers and impious Muslims for Sufi orders ( )! Places restrictions on this right Muslim female heirs receive half the amount of male!, men and women often practice their religion in Egypt for 200 (! The sole source of law. under the post-coup government the new Awqaf minister reportedly. Since it happened slowly native Coptic and Greek languages with Arabic as their sole and... 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